Tuesday, 31 May 2016

Territory and Home range:

Home range depends on the amount of survival resources closest to a species territory. For example, baboons home range may be small as the survival resources needed may be only a few meters away e.g. living near ocean to catch fish, living under trees where leaves, fruit are available. Whereas if there is a shortage of survival resources the home range will become larger as species must travel longer distance to get survival resources. Home range in my understanding is defined as the reach/range of survival resources. The further the access of food the larger the home range. Explain how environmental factors impacts the home range size. Include Area, approximate home range size, approximate daily range, average troop size, habitat and yearly rainfall. Explain how environmental factors impacts the daily range size. Include Area, approximate home range size, approximate daily range, average troop size, habitat and yearly rainfall. The area is a factor that impacts the home range size. Baboons that live in Bole Valley, Ethiopia have an approximate home range size of 0.745km2 - 1.12km2. Also according to the data provided the Baboons daily range is approximately 0.3 to 2.0 km. The average troop size is 15-24. This may be because the habitat that these baboons live in have a mixed forest and grassland which means it is lush and have a healthy habitat to grow vegetables, fruit and leaves which may as well attract bigger prey for the baboons to kill and eat. However, Baboons that live in the area Laikipia Plateau, Kenya have a larger home range compared to Ethiopia of 43.8 km2 and daily range of 5.64. They have an average number of 100 troops. This may be because of the habitat that these baboons live in which is full of dry grassland. Dry grassland can not grow healthy fruits, vegetables and grass which means these baboons must travel further out to find food. This is why their home range is wider.

Monday, 30 May 2016

Cooperative behaviours territory

Cooperative interaction is when two individuals interact with each other for their benefit. For example, Pukeko’s cooperatively interact when a female and male born a child. They interact as parents to protect, support and keep the child healthy to the best of their ability. Hierarchy is a method used in some species to balance out equal access to resources such as food, mates and territory. For example, Pukeko’s have a dominant leader who dictates what is done with the resources. When food is brought into the territory the dominant leader has first access to the food, however the dominant leader only eats a fair share of his worth as its species must eat as well in order to survive. Therefore a good strategy to reduce energy into fighting for resources. Territorial is an area which is defended to other members of the specie. This area is used to house, protect children. For example, Pukeko’s have their own territory where they would defend if another organism tries to intrude. Pukekos have territorial so that each Pukeko knows its place. They use sounds or their beaks to peck as a method to defend rather than using all energy into fighting to the death over territory. Cooperative interaction is carried out to benefit the growth of the family. Families who have help from next of kin members are more likely to survive. Pukekos have members of the family who are selected to breed, other members of the family are their to help supervise the babies and this is called kin selection. Pukekos will only help supervise babies of their own family. Similar to how us human cooperate. I would most likely supervise my nephew or niece in comparison to a stranger’s baby. Hierarchy is carried out to reduce energy being used into fighting for resources. For example, if there was no hierarchy most species would fight till the death to win over the resources it needs to survive. Whereas with a hierarchy, species have a dominant leader who is in charge of the group. This helps to have balance in access to food, mates and territory. Therefore this reduces the numbers of death in their population and increases survival in species. Territorial is a method used to give privacy to species. Territory is also a way of protection. For some species, territory may be hard to approach e.g. high up in a tree, to hide from predators. Cooperative interaction benefits the species as a group as organism have more protection if in danger. E.g. if a predator tries to kill a young one, all members of the family will be their to fight off the predator. Territory in Pukeko’s also overlaps with other territory of other families. Therefore more of a chance conflict over territory will be between Pukeko families. Cooperative interaction benefits an individual of a specie as it has a higher chance of survival when in a larger group. A predator is less likely to attack when in a large pack in comparison to an individual fighting alone. Hierarchy benefits an individual of a species as it allows that individual to have access to its fair share of resources without competition this is also similar to benefits of a group in the species. Territorial benefits an individual of a specie as it allows a place of comfort and protection.