Monday, 30 May 2016

Cooperative behaviours territory

Cooperative interaction is when two individuals interact with each other for their benefit. For example, Pukeko’s cooperatively interact when a female and male born a child. They interact as parents to protect, support and keep the child healthy to the best of their ability. Hierarchy is a method used in some species to balance out equal access to resources such as food, mates and territory. For example, Pukeko’s have a dominant leader who dictates what is done with the resources. When food is brought into the territory the dominant leader has first access to the food, however the dominant leader only eats a fair share of his worth as its species must eat as well in order to survive. Therefore a good strategy to reduce energy into fighting for resources. Territorial is an area which is defended to other members of the specie. This area is used to house, protect children. For example, Pukeko’s have their own territory where they would defend if another organism tries to intrude. Pukekos have territorial so that each Pukeko knows its place. They use sounds or their beaks to peck as a method to defend rather than using all energy into fighting to the death over territory. Cooperative interaction is carried out to benefit the growth of the family. Families who have help from next of kin members are more likely to survive. Pukekos have members of the family who are selected to breed, other members of the family are their to help supervise the babies and this is called kin selection. Pukekos will only help supervise babies of their own family. Similar to how us human cooperate. I would most likely supervise my nephew or niece in comparison to a stranger’s baby. Hierarchy is carried out to reduce energy being used into fighting for resources. For example, if there was no hierarchy most species would fight till the death to win over the resources it needs to survive. Whereas with a hierarchy, species have a dominant leader who is in charge of the group. This helps to have balance in access to food, mates and territory. Therefore this reduces the numbers of death in their population and increases survival in species. Territorial is a method used to give privacy to species. Territory is also a way of protection. For some species, territory may be hard to approach e.g. high up in a tree, to hide from predators. Cooperative interaction benefits the species as a group as organism have more protection if in danger. E.g. if a predator tries to kill a young one, all members of the family will be their to fight off the predator. Territory in Pukeko’s also overlaps with other territory of other families. Therefore more of a chance conflict over territory will be between Pukeko families. Cooperative interaction benefits an individual of a specie as it has a higher chance of survival when in a larger group. A predator is less likely to attack when in a large pack in comparison to an individual fighting alone. Hierarchy benefits an individual of a species as it allows that individual to have access to its fair share of resources without competition this is also similar to benefits of a group in the species. Territorial benefits an individual of a specie as it allows a place of comfort and protection.

1 comment:

  1. Hi Cherub,

    Great answer! One thing about this question is that there are different families in the hierarchy. For example, different family groups are higher than other family groups. And each family has their own territory that they defend.

    Make sure to define key words in answers, such as territory, territorial behaviour, home range, kin selection, competition, cooperation etc.

    Other social groupings other than family groups, hierarchies, etc, are also pairs (the mother and father you mentioned) who have formed a monogomous pair bond. This strategy can increase the survival of their offspring and also allow a division of labour; one can care for the chicks while the other hunts.

    Keep up the great work! You are the only student who answered both exam questions :)